Wednesday, 7 February 2018

Das Apollon Archegetes Heiligtum – The Sanctuary of Apollo Archegetes

Professor Mustafa Şahin has posted an off print, in German, from Cityscapes and Monuments of Western Asia Minor - Memories and Identities titled “Das Apollon Archegetes Heiligtum auf der Asar Insel bei Myndos” on


“Recent excavations on Asar Island, located by the harbour entrance of Myndos, have brought to light some interesting finds. These indicate that it was originally the site of a cult of Apollo Archegetes – a cult site dominated by a large altar. The altar, the nature of Apollo Archegetes, and Asar Island as an ever-present part of the cityscape for the inhabitants of  Myndos are discussed in this article. In addition, some of the interesting small finds from the excavations are highlighted to further illustrate the development of the site.”

Although there is no definitive date for the altar it is believed to have been erected during the mid 4th century B.C. during, or after, Mausolus’ synoecism of the Lelegian settlements, and that it was later refurbished or supplemented during the Roman Period.

During the later Christian development of the island, one side of the altar was incorporated into the construction of a water cistern.

A dedication discovered in 2013 identifies the altar as being dedicated to Apollo Archegetes with the suffix Archegetes suggesting that Apollo was seen as the founder or protector of the city.

The absence of any other buildings, on the island, dating from this period has led Prof Şahin to propose that the whole of the island may have been a sanctuary and the monumental, marble, architectural masonry found during the excavations may have been part of the propylon at the entrance to the sanctuary.

The paper also catalogues a number of architectural components, ceramic and figurative fragments found during the excavations, including pot sherds which pre-date the altar.

For details of the book see Cityscapes and Monuments of Western Asia Minor

Sunday, 14 January 2018

Turkish Underwater Archaeology Foundation (TINA) Periodical No 8

The latest TINA Periodical No 8 is available to view online and includes an article on the work of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology’s Bodrum Research Centre.

Sunday, 26 November 2017

Amphora Finds and Stamps - Myndos Excavations 2006-2013

A detailed paper (125 pages) in Turkish, by Gonca Gülsefa, research assistant at Uludağ University, on the amphora sherds excavated at Gümüşlük and available to read or download from    



 Karia kentlerinden biri olan Myndos Antik Kenti, Antik yazarlarında sıkça bahsettiği gibi, Ege Denizi ile Akdeniz’in kesişme noktasında bulunmaktadır ve coğrafi konumu itibariyle önemli bir yapıya sahip kentlerden birisidir. 2006-2013 yılları arasında yapılan kazı çalışmaları sonucunda ele geçen 157 adet amphora par- çası değerlendirilmiştir. Bu amphoralardan 40 tanesi üzerinde ise mühür baskıları yer almaktadır. Bu parçaların ışığında, kentte hangi tip amphoraların kullanıldığı, kentin amphora üretimindeki yeri ve kentin ticari boyutu belirlenmek istenmiştir. Kazı çalışmalarında tespit edilen ve kökenleri belirlenerek gruplandırılan amphora buluntuları ve mühür baskılı kulpların, yerleşim alanlarında hangi dönemden itibaren ne oranda kullanım görüldükleri, üretilen ve tüketilen, ticareti yapılan malların ve bu alanların sosyo-ekonomik durumları tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Amphora buluntuları içerisinde, İ.Ö. 6. yüzyıldan başlayarak, İ.S. 7. yüzyıla kadar olan dönemi kapsayan tipler yer almaktadır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Karia, Myndos, Amphora, Amphora Mühürü, Dressel 2-4, Kos.

Amphora Finds and its Stamps which Were Found between 2006-2013 Myndos Excavation


The ancient city of Myndos, which is one of the Carian cities, mentioned frequently by the ancient authors. It is located at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean Sea. It has an important structure with its geographical location. 157 pieces amphora sherds are evaluated which were found during the excavations carried out between the years of 2006-2013. There are seal impressions on 40 pieces of these amphorae. In the light of these sherds, the types of amphoras which were used in the city, the position of the city in terms of producing amphorae and the commercial size of the city wanted to be determined. Also, of amphorae finds and seal impressions which are defined by the excavations and grouped by identifying their origin, from what period and what extent they were seen in the residential areas, the produced, consumed and traded goods and socio- economic status have been tried to be determined. Amongst the amphorae finds, there are types which are covering the periods from 6th century BC and 7th century AD. Keywords: Caria, Myndos, Amphora, Amphora Stamp, Dressel 2-4, Kos.

Sunday, 19 November 2017

One to look out for in 2018

A paper by Asst Prof Dr Oktay Dumankaya titled “2014 Myndos Eastern Harbour Bathymetric Study and First Assessment” is due to be published in March 2018’s edition of the International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. The paper is available to preview now (pay to view) at onlinelibray.wiley

I was fortunate enough to see an early draft of the paper, it compares the bathymetric features surveyed by Lt Cdr Graves RN in 1837 (UKHO chart 1531) and the results of digital bathymetric survey of the harbour in 2014.

Additionally but not directly associated with Gümüşlük or Myndos is another paper (which I missed first time around) by Dr Dumankaya describing five harbour structures, six piers, and a breakwater on Salih Island (north of Torba opposite Güvercinlik and Kuyucak Mevkii.)

Google Maps (pointer identifies the island not the site of the reported harbour structures)

The paper (in Turkish) was given at the 2nd International Symposium Of Turgut Reis And Turkish Maritime History in Nov 2013 and titled “Salih Adasi (Karyandaantik Kenti ?) Liman Araştirmasi” “Salih Island (The Ancient City Of Karyanda?) Harbor Research” and is available to download as a PDF from and

Bu makalenin konusunu Muğla ili, Bodrum ilçesi idari sınırları içerisinde yer alan Salih Adası (Karyanda Antik Kenti ?) limanyapıları oluşturmaktadır. Söz konusu adanın kıyı hattında, ada limanı ile ilişkili birçok yapı kalıntısı tespit edilmiştir. Bu yapı kalıntılarının Hellenistik ve Geç Antik Çağ’a ait olduğu görülmektedir. Tespit edilen liman yapılarının bölgedeki diğer örnekler ile karşılaştırmaları, tarihlendirmeleri ve bu yapı kalıntılarının hangi kente ait olduğunun sorgulanması makalenin konusunu oluşturmaktadır.
This article concerns with the harbour structures that Salih Island shoreline located in the Province of Muğla, district of Bodrum (The ancient city of Karyanda ?). Many remains of structures associated with the harbor have been identified at the costal line of the island. These structures might be dated back to the Hellenistic and late ancient period. Comparisons of identified harbor structures with other harbor structures in the region, dating of the structures and questioning of which city they belong to are the subject of this article.

Wednesday, 1 November 2017

Myndos (Asar Adasi) Geç Antik Dönem Seramikleri - Late Antiquity Pottery of (Asar Island) Myndos

One for the pot experts and those who know their Hayes classifications, a paper by Sinan Mimaroğlu Asst. Assoc. Dr. Mustafa Kemal University Antakya-Hatay, published in Ege University’s Journal of Art History  Vol XXVI Oct 17 and available to download from (only available in Turkish)


Ancient city of Myndos was one of Carian Cities in the antiquity and is located within the administrative boundaries of Gumusluk locality of Bodrum District in modern Turkey’s Muğla Province.

Apart from information recounted in works of antique and modern travelers, the very first study on this city was the underwater exploration conducted in and around Myndos by INA (Institute of Nautical Archaeology) in 1980 whereupon 10 amphoras, similar to those found in Yassiada Shipwreck which were aged for 4th century A.D. Underwater and surface studies were carried out between 2004 and 2006 which were led by Prof. Dr. Mustafa Sahin. The ground surveys carried out in 2008 revealed a monumental structure on Asar Island whereupon first scientific excavation works have started in 2009.*

The layers of structures beginning earliest from the Hellenistic period were revealed by the studies on the hill. In the Late Antiquity, basilica and houses and cisterns were built on top of the hill. The most recent layer features fortified walls dating the Late Byzantium Era.

Present study is the first that focuses on ceramics that were excavated between the years 2009-2013 from Asar Island (a.k.a. Rabbit Island) which overlooks the Myndos.

The ceramics examined in this study are from Late Antiquity of common wares and include cooking and heating pots, lids and Late Roman Red-Slip Wares. The ceramics provide important data concerning Late Antique settlements in the site and clues much needed to understand the fabric of the settlement. LATE_ANTIQUITY_POTTERY_OF_ASAR_ISLAND_MYNDOS

Saturday, 2 September 2017

Amphorae and Amphora Stamps of Myndos in the Hellenistic Period

Link to a poster titled Amphorae and Amphora Stamps of Myndos in the Hellenistic Period  on

The poster was presented by Gonca Gülsefa of Uludağ University at the International Association for Research on Pottery of Hellenistic Period (IARPotHP) conference in June this year.