Myndians in History

Alexander of Myndos (c. 1st century AD)

A classical author whose works are now lost, ancient writers and commentators refer to a number of books written by Alexander

Collection of Marvels

On Animals (or A History of Beasts)

Periplous of the Erythrean Sea (which may have been a separate work or part of a larger volume)

Alexander was quoted directly by, Athenaeus, Aelian and Plutarch. Aelian (Roman author c. AD 175 c. AD 235), who quotes Alexander more than any other writer with the exception of Aristotle, in his work On the History of Animals described Alexander as an intelligent man who had nothing to gain by lying.

Photios, 9th century Patriarch of Constantinople, in his Bibliotheca (188 p. 145b 9) reviewing Alexander’s Collection of Marvels describes his writing style as lucid and concise and not devoid of charm.

Alexander also wrote a book on dreams and is cited by Artemidorus Daldinus, a writer from Ephesus in the 2nd century AD.

For translations and commentary on some of Alexander’s works see S.R. Asirvatham Alexander of Myndos (25) Brills New Jacoby Alexander of Myndos (25) Brills New Jacoby

Alexon of Myndos
There is no date offered for Alexon other than he must have earlier than, or contemporary, with Diogenes Laertius who references Alexon’s 9th book on myths.

Diogenes is thought to have written his work Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers in the first half of the 3rd century A.D.

There is some speculation regarding Alexon and whether he and Alexander are one and the same. The debate appears to centre on a publication on the works of Diogenes in the 17th century where it was proposed that Diogenes meant to write Alexander and not Alexon.

Those who suggest that Alexon and Alexander could be two different writers point to the fact that there are no other historic references to Alexander writing a book on mythology.

Apollonius of Myndos

The suggested dates for Apollonius seem to range from the 2nd to the 4th century BC, a quick browse on the web came up with 140±10 BC to 90±10 BC, “about 220 BC” and “... forth-century scholar”

Apollonius is believed to have studied with the Chaldaean (Babylonian) astrologers and is the first recorded astrologer to suggest that comets were orbiting celestial bodies.

Seneca the Younger (c. 4 BC – AD 65) in Natural Questions (VII pp 263 - 265) describes Apollonius as highly skilled in the casting of horoscopes and discusses Apollonius’s work, comparing his theories on comets with those of another astrologer Epigenes

Loeb Classical Library. Seneca the Younger Natural Questions VII 236-265

Botryas of MyndosLittle is recorded regarding Botryas other than he was used by Ptolemy Chennos (Ptolemy Hephaestion) author of New History in the 2nd century AD

Eusebius of Myndos (c. 4th century AD)

Neoplatonist philosopher who studied under Aedesius of Pergamum and who is mentioned in Eunapius’ Lives of Philosophers written in the latter part of the 4th century.

In 351 Eusebius was one of Adedesius’ students who taught the young Flavious Cladius Julianus, the future Emperor Julian I.

Eusebius differed from the other members of the school at Pergamum in that he practiced logic and spoke against ritual magic practiced by some of the other philosophers. Initially the young Julian held Eusebius in high regard but he turned from Eusebius’ philosophical teaching in favour of the theurgist teachings and practices of Maxiumus of Ephesus and Chrysanthius of Sardis.

Tertullian.Org Eunapius Lives of Philosophers and Sophists (1921) English Translation by William Cave Wright pp.431 -437

Theopompos of Myndos (5th century BC)

A Trierarch (officer commanding a Trireme) who fought with Lysander at Battle of Aegospotami in 405 BC.

A statue of Theopompos is listed as being a part of Lysander’s monument at Delphi dedicated to the victory of the Spartans over the Athenians in the last battle of the Peloponnesian war. The dedication is mentioned by Pausanias, a Greek traveller and geographer from the 2nd century AD. (Pausanias 10.9.7)

Perseus Digital Library Andrew Stewart One Hundred Greek Sculptors, Their Careers and Extant Works

Although Theopompos received this prestigious recognition of his actions I have been unable to find any other references to him or his part in the battle. Conversely I found a short but fairly detailed account of an unnamed Myndian in Hellenica Oxyrhychia.

Hellenica Oxyrhychia, a history of ancient Greece during the 5th and 4th centuries B.C discovered as fragments of papyri in Oxyrhychia, Egypt. One of the “Florence” fragments (Fragment C, V.2) describes the actions of a clandestine Myndian who having hidden in the woods yat the sanctuary of Demeter and Kore, waits for a signal from an Athenian sentry then exchanges messages by means of a rope dropped over the wall.

The dates and location of the covert exchange are uncertain but it seems likely that it occurred either one or two years before or after the battle of Notium (407/406 BC) possibly during the capture of Byzantium or the siege of Thasos. PR McKechnie & SJ Kern Hellenica Oxyrhynchia edited with translation and commentary 1988 pp. 43

For additional information on discussions regarding dates and possible location also see:

Google Books IAF Bruce An Historical Commentary on the Hellenica Oxyrhyncia 1967 pp 45-49

Zeno (c. 1st century AD)

A grammarian from the time of Tiberius (Emperor 14 - 37 AD) and thought to be the one of eight Zenos listed by Diogenes Laertius (VII 35) and described as “a grammarian who besides other writings has left behind him epigrams” Diogenes does not use the designation “of Myndos” but subsequent authors describe Zeno of Myndos as a grammarian.

One of the earliest references to Zeno appears in Clement of Alexandria’s Protrepticus (Exhortation to the Greeks, or in some later translations titled Exhortation to the Heathen), Clement an early Christian theologian (c 150 – c 215 AD) mentions Zeno’s description of the sepulchre of Leukophryne in the temple of Artemis at Magnesia. Elsewhere the few references that I’ve found for Zeno are mainly concerned with the provenance of the sepulchre at Magnesia or questioning his translation of a text on Panathenaic vases.

Wikisource Nicene Christian Library Exhortation to the Heathen translated by William Wilson 1867

Theokles and Herophantos 3rd century BC

Circa 280 BC King Philokles of Sidon commanded that the people of Miletos, Myndos and Halicarnassus should send dikastai (jurors or judges) to Samos to resolve ongoing disputes between the Samian citizens.

As a result two Myndian dikastai, Theokles son of Theogenes and Herophantos son of Atremidoros, are honoured and made proxenoi (a statement of appreciation by a state to the citizen of another) in a Samian decree.

For a full translation of the decree see Shipley, G. The Greek World After Alexander 323-30 BC. London: Routledge, 2000 (p 78-79)

Google Books The Greek World after Alexander

A few years later Theokles’ son Theogenes is honoured by the inhabitants of Argos.(Clarysse 1992)

Willy Claryse also discusses evidence for an unnamed 2nd century Myndian in Ptolemaic service in Egypt being instructed to pay a 20 drachmae fine.

Menesthes and Kallistratos (Dates unknown)

There are two fragments of marble stele from the temple of Apollo at Kalymna (Kalymnos) listed in Ancient Greek Inscriptions In The British Museum Part II

A fragment of a stele honouring Menesthes a Myndian for services rendered to Kalymnians in Myndos and elsewhere abroad. (Newton Pg 64)

A second fragment containing the heading of a decree detailing the public services of Kallistratos a Myndian (Newton Pg 77) Ancient Greek Inscriptions In The British Museum Part II Edited by CT Newton

Theopempte and Eusebios (c. 4th – 6th century AD)

An engraving bearing the dedication “[From T]heopempte, Archsynagos, and her son Eusebios” was found on marble chancel post from a synagogue in Myndos, the inscription discovered by W R Paton was first translated by T Reinarch in 1901.

There is evidence of an active Jewish community in the city since the 2nd century BC, 1 Maccabees 15:23 describes a letter being sent from a Roman Consul to a number of Jewish communities, including Myndos, circ 139 BC.

The inscription is cited in numerous article and books as “Archsynagos” implies that Theopempte was a female leader or president of the synagogue. Reinach T. Insriptions grecques d’Argos et de Myndos 1901 (Article)

The four known Bishops of Myndos who attended the early ecumenical councils

Archelaus Ephesus in 431

Alphius Chalcedon in 451

John Constantinople II in 680

John Nicaea II in 787

Other than the entry in the Catholic Encyclopaedia there is little other information on the four clerics.

Alphius is recorded as having attended the 1st, 2nd, 4th and 6th sessions at Chalcedon.

Archelaus who signed himself as “Archelaus the most insignificant bishop of Myndus” at the council of Ephesus, was one the three bishops selected to deliver a message from the council to Bishop John of Antioch. John who led a group of eastern bishops in support of Nestorius (condemned for preaching that Mary should not be referred to as the mother of god) had been requested to attend the council. On arrival at John’s lodgings the three bishops were threatened by armed guards and a crowd of John’s supporters, Bishop Archelaus reported, on his return to the council “The people about us were in an uproar, and we were exposed to some danger; the soldiers threatened us, with their swords drawn and clubs in their hands”

Gogle Books Fleury, C., Kay, W. & Newman, J. H. The Ecclesiastical History, from A.D. 429 to A.D. 456, translated, with notes. 1844 Oxford.pp 100

Delphis of Myndos (3rd century BC)A fictional character in Theocritus’ Second Idyll

The poem tells the story, thought to be set in Cos, of a young woman Simaetha who had been in a relationship with Delphis a Myndian athlete but having not seen him for 12 days and it being rumoured that he might be seeing another, casts a spell and offer prayers to Hecate the Moon Goddess.

Theoi E-Texts Library Theocritus, Iddylls 1-4

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